How to make smart waste management and floor wiping machine using Arduino uno

Learn how to make automated guided smart waste management and floor wiping machine using Arduino Uno.

iot garbage monitoring system

Automated Guided smart waste management vehicle is a robot that can deliver ,collect the materials from one places to another places automatically.In this project I have implemented the concept of AGV. AGV can be used in different sector such as industries,public places for different purpose.In our project we have implemented AGV as a waste management system .The vehicle can be controlled wirelessly through the microcontroller interfaced on it.To collect the waste suction pump is used and to clean the floor we have used wiper .Infrared and ultrasonic sensor has been added which enable the robot to detect the level of waste on the collection bucket and enables the robot to stop as long as there is an obstacle.

TABLE OF CONTENETS

  1. INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………
  2. AGV COMPONENTS…………………………………………………………..
  •            MECHANICAL
  •            STEERING SYSTEM
  •            ELECTRICAL
  •            SUCTION PUMP
  •            WIPER

3.BLOCK DIAGRAM……………………………………………………………

4. MECHANICAL DESIGN………………………………………………………

5. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENETS……………………….

  •            ARDUINO
  •            MOTOR DRIVER
  •            MOTOR(DC)
  •            IR SENSOR
  •            JUMPER WIRES
  •            BATTERY

6. COMPUTER/PROGRAMMING……………………………………………….

7. PATH  PLANNING……………………………………………………………..

8. CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………….

1.INTRODUCTION

An AGV is a mobile robot that follow a specific path with the help of magnetic tape,vision or laser.They are mostly used in industries to collect the materials from one place and dispatch to its destination.The AGV we have constructed collects the waste on public places such as train station,bus stand etc  and dispatch to its destination .Its a multiple purpose AGV since it collects waste and also do the work of  wipe.

AGV increases efficiency and reduces the cost by helping the management(waste) system automatic. Increasing popularity of AGVs is based on the unequivocal adaptability of the technology by removing any hassle of adjusting physical barriers. Using such an autonomous system provides benefits of vehicles that make routing decisions based on real-time feedback of environment conditions along with the ease of navigational adjustments.AGV are used in nearly every industries including paper ,metals,general manufacturing.

AGV can also called as laser guided vehicle(LGV) or Self Guided Vehicle(SGV).LGV uses laser to sense the environment and follow the path.

AGV increases efficiency and reduces the cost by helping the management(waste) system automatic. Increasing quality of AGVs is predicated on the unequivocal ability of the technology by removing any problem of adjusting physical barriers. Using such AN autonomous system provides advantages of vehicles that build routing choices supported period of time feedback of atmosphere conditions together with the convenience of steering changes.AGV ar used in nearly every industries including paper ,metals,general manufacturing.
AGV can also called as laser guided vehicle(LGV) or Self Guided Vehicle(SGV).LGV uses laser to sense the environment and follow the path.

what is garbage collection?

Garbage collection is the method of trash disposal.The garbage collection can be done through various method.It can be done either manually or by using different waste collection technology.In this project we have made iot based iot garbage monitoring system.

2. AGV COMPONENTS

  • Mechanical

 

1)Chassis

  • Carry the load (i.e waste on bucket) and other components .
  • Acts as frame to interface other components.

2)Suction Pump

  • Suck the waste through the suction pipe and collect into the bucket.

3)Wiper

  • Cleans the floor after suction pump sucks the waste.

4)Steering system

  • It uses differential control according to the path it follow

 

  1. Electrical

1)DC Motor

2)Power Supply(12V Battery)

 

  • Electronic Components

1)Infrared Sensor

2)Ultrasonic Sensor

3)Arduino Microcontroller

4)Motor Driver

 

  1. Software

1)Arduino IDE

 

3) BLOCK DIAGRAM

automated guided smart waste management

 

4) MECHANICAL DESIGN

iot garbage monitoring system

The design of the chassis is fabricated from aluminium alloy steel metal.It was designed and analysed on SolidWork.The chassis was designed to take a static load of 5 kg minimum.

The upper plain part of the chassis has lots of holes to interface the other components such as microcontroller and also to give support for bolting which ultimately reduces the weight of the chassis .The hole are arranged in zigzag way in order to increase the strength of chassis eliminating the stress concentration.

Feature Data
1.     Length 35.20 cms
2.     Breadth 21.6 cms
3.     Height 30 cms
4.     Materials AL
      5.  Mounting Hole 0.1 cms

5)STEERING SYSTEM

The control of the steering system is based on the differential type.A differential wheel vehicle is a vehicle whose movement is based on the two saparately driven wheel placed on either side of the body.It can thus change its direction by varying the relative rate of motion of its wheel and hence doesnot require additional steering.

If both wheel rotates same speed and in same direction then the robot will move in the straight line.

If  the both wheel moves in relative direction then the robot will move either in right direction or left direction.

 Suction Pump

Suction pump  is the flow of waste  into a partial vacuum(Bucket), or region of low pressure.

The pressure gradient between this region(suction region) and the ambient pressure will propel matter toward the low pressure area.The inlet location is said to be at the suction side of the pump and the outlet location is said to be at the discharge side of the pump which is Bucket.

  • Wiper

It is simple broom blade type disk which is connected to the dc motor that makes the wiper disk rotates and provides uniform cleaning and provides cleaning to the remotest of the corners.

It is of rubber  type and various other materials that enhance their efficiency even more.

automated guided smart waste management broom

6) ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS

  1. Arduino Uno

                 what is arduino used for?

Here we have used arduino uno to control our whole system of smart waste management    vehicle.Arduino acts as the CPU of the whole system.Each components such as sensor ,motor, interfaced is controlled through the arduino microcontroller.

  1. L293D Motor Driver IC

l293d motor driver connection with arduino for turning the motor in forward and reverse direction.

  1. Geared motor
  2. Wheels
  3. IR sensor
  4. Jumper wires
  5. Power source
  • Working of  AGV  Robot

In this project, we have designed an Arduino based Automatic Guided Robot. Working of this vehicle is pretty simple: detect the black line on the surface and move along that line.We used two IR Sensors, which consists of IR LED and Photodiode. They are placed in a reflective way  so that whenever they come in to proximity of a reflective surface, the light emitted by IR LED will be detected by Photo diode.

The following image reflect working of a typical IR Sensor in front of a light colored surface and a black surface. As the reflectance of the light colored surface is high, the infrared light emitted by IR LED will be maximum reflected and will be detected by the Photodiode.

Code

Here we have added line follower code using arduino with other sensors

#define LS 2      // left sensor intializes

#define RS 3      // right sensor intializes

#define LS1 4      // left sensor intializes

#define RS1 5     // right sensor intializes

#define suctionPump 6

#define wiper 7

#define pnematic 1

#define echopin  8 // echo pin

#define trigpin 9 // Trigger pin

#define echopin1  10 // echo pin

#define trigpin1 11 // Trigger

int maxRange1 = 30;

long durat1, dist1;

int maxRange = 30;

long durat, dist;

 

 

#define LM1 4       // left motor intializes

#define LM2 5       // left motor intializes

#define RM1 6       // right motor intializes

#define RM2 7       // right motor intializes

void setup()

{

pinMode(suctionPump, OUTPUT);

pinMode(wiper, OUTPUT);

pinMode(LS, INPUT);

pinMode(RS, INPUT);

pinMode(LM1, OUTPUT);

pinMode(LM2, OUTPUT);

pinMode(RM1, OUTPUT);

pinMode(RM2, OUTPUT);

pinMode (trigpin, OUTPUT);

pinMode (echopin, INPUT );

pinMode (trigpin1, OUTPUT);

pinMode (echopin1, INPUT );

Serial.begin (9600);

}

void loop()

{

 

digitalWrite(suctionPump,HIGH);

digitalWrite(wiper,HIGH);

{

digitalWrite(trigpin,LOW);

delayMicroseconds(2);

 

digitalWrite(trigpin,HIGH);

delayMicroseconds(10);

 

durat=pulseIn (echopin,HIGH);

 

dist= durat/58.2;

delay (50);

Serial.println(dist);

}

{

digitalWrite(trigpin1,LOW);

delayMicroseconds(2);

 

digitalWrite(trigpin1,HIGH);

delayMicroseconds(10);

 

durat1=pulseIn (echopin1,HIGH);

 

dist1= durat1/58.2;

delay (50);

Serial.println(“distance to go to Escavate the waste”);

}

if (dist >= 20 )

{

digitalWrite(pnematic, HIGH);

delay(1000);

}

 

if (dist >= 30 )

{

Serial.println(“Ready For Disposal to destination”);

if(digitalRead(LS1) && digitalRead(RS1))     // Move Forward

{

digitalWrite(LM1, HIGH);

digitalWrite(LM2, LOW);

digitalWrite(RM1, HIGH);

digitalWrite(RM2, LOW);

}

 

if(!(digitalRead(LS1)) && digitalRead(RS1))     // Turn right

{

digitalWrite(LM1, LOW);

digitalWrite(LM2, LOW);

digitalWrite(RM1, HIGH);

digitalWrite(RM2, LOW);

}

 

if(digitalRead(LS1) && !(digitalRead(RS1)))     // turn left

{

digitalWrite(LM1, HIGH);

digitalWrite(LM2, LOW);

digitalWrite(RM1, LOW);

digitalWrite(RM2, LOW);

}

}

 

else if(digitalRead(LS) && digitalRead(RS))     // Move Forward

{

digitalWrite(LM1, HIGH);

digitalWrite(LM2, LOW);

digitalWrite(RM1, HIGH);

digitalWrite(RM2, LOW);

}

 

if(!(digitalRead(LS)) && digitalRead(RS))     // Turn right

{

digitalWrite(LM1, LOW);

digitalWrite(LM2, LOW);

digitalWrite(RM1, HIGH);

digitalWrite(RM2, LOW);

}

 

if(digitalRead(LS) && !(digitalRead(RS)))     // turn left

{

digitalWrite(LM1, HIGH);

digitalWrite(LM2, LOW);

digitalWrite(RM1, LOW);

digitalWrite(RM2, LOW);

}

 

if(!(digitalRead(LS)) && !(digitalRead(RS)))     // stop

{

digitalWrite(LM1, LOW);

digitalWrite(LM2, LOW);

digitalWrite(RM1, LOW);

digitalWrite(RM2, LOW);

}

}

conclusion

This iot garbage monitoring system based AGV in waste management system has following advantages

1.It increases the speed of waste management system .

2.Flexibility of path i.e extension can be made as per as the requirements.

3.Reduction in the labour cost.

4.Ability of the sensor to sense the physical environment and react accordance to the system .

5.Can be implimented on different public places such as train station ,bus stand etc.

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